Then he arranged these on a block to form printable text. Neo- Confucian thought became their dominant philosophy of life and religion.
Even after the end of the conflict, maintaining standing army in the resource-poor northern regions placed a heavy burden on the economy.
The battle at this fortress spurred Mongol forces to withdraw from Syria and prevented their expansion into Africa. The government had built a navy, traded heavily with foreign powers, and established a civil service exam that allowed commoners to rise to leadership positions.
Movable Type Printing Shen Kuo wrote about how a contemporary printer manufactured and used movable type. The Song weaponry was the world's most advanced, and they had the greatest population of any empire that the Mongols tried to attack around the world, more than million.
Before his death he had begun an expansion into the small Ten Kingdoms of southern China. The Bei Song dynasty at Bianjing had begun a renewal of Buddhism and of literature and the arts.
The new emperor, Gaozong, set up his capital city in the wealthy and large merchant city of Hangzhou in the year The shrinking of the Song lands did nothing to dampen the booming economy as, fortunately, the great trading ports of the new capital, Quanzhou and Fuzhou were all in the south and continued to thrive as multinational cities where significant numbers of Muslim and Hindu immigrants took up permanent residence.