The last, to me, is the most serious-the most alarming-and the most afflicting of the two.
Unlike loose political groupings in the British House of Commons or in the American colonies before the Revolution, both had reasonably consistent and principled platforms, relatively stable popular followings, and continuing organizations. There were many who wished to repudiate the Confederation's national debt or pay only part of it.
Modeled after the Bank of England, it acted as the nation's central financial institution and operated branches in different parts of the country. Openly distrustful of the latent radicalism of the masses, they could nonetheless credibly appeal to workers and artisans.
The Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson, spoke primarily for agricultural interests and values. And without more charity for the opinions and acts of one another in Governmental matters. Jefferson's notes contain complaints about yet another of what Jefferson called Hamilton's forty-five minute jury speeches.
Politics itself is a day-to-day affair, imposing by its very nature on the politician a series of shifts and compromises.
Constitution by James Madison. Every college student, indeed every literate person, is expected to choose up sides and pin a label on himself in the Great Debate. From this basic cornerstone, the rest of the Jeffersonian edifice is easily deduced.