At least two particular products or services that are at higher risk of causing cognitive dissonance

what causes cognitive dissonance

His hunger pushing him, the fox rushes to the vine. We will look at the main findings to have emerged from each area. Since the smoker friend knows that smoking is bad and yet loves smoking, he tries to change his beliefs by convincing himself that smoking is not that bad.

Conflict avoidance can also be a sign of cognitive dissonance. This is the same reason why people stay in abusive relationships. When children are given money by their parents to get good grades in school, they may improve their school performance to gain the reward.

So, how can you tell with certainty when you are experiencing cognitive dissonance? Choosing one alternative means you will forego all the advantages of the unchosen alternative, while at the same time guaranteeing you the disadvantages of your chosen decision, something known as decision opportunity cost.

We could, of course, spend years of effort into achieving something which turns out to be a load of rubbish and then, in order to avoid the dissonance that produces, try to convince ourselves that we didn't really spend years of effort, or that the effort was really quite enjoyable, or that it wasn't really a lot of effort.

Cognitive dissonance articles

For instance, someone who buys an expensively priced shoe from a luxury store when he could have bought the same shoe at a lower price from a different store convinces himself that the cheaper shoe is a fake to justify his purchase, even when there is no difference between the shoes. Blaming the situation for the behavior allows him to avoid blaming himself for it and to avoid facing the fact that he found listening to music more important than his schoolwork. For the children in the mild threat condition, however, the external reasons for their behavior were not so apparent—they had only been asked not to play with the toy. Some attitudinal consequences of forced decisions. Or did you ever realize how thirsty you must have been as you quickly drank a big glass of water? Research has shown that self-perception occurs regularly and in many different domains. Permanent decisions with significant ramifications tend to cause stronger dissonance. We could, of course, spend years of effort into achieving something which turns out to be a load of rubbish and then, in order to avoid the dissonance that produces, try to convince ourselves that we didn't really spend years of effort, or that the effort was really quite enjoyable, or that it wasn't really a lot of effort. This is referred to as "spreading apart the alternatives. What you may not know is that decision making arouses dissonance as a general rule. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58 2 , When children are given money by their parents to get good grades in school, they may improve their school performance to gain the reward. In the 'mild embarrassment' condition, participants read aloud to a male experimenter a list of sex-related words like 'virgin' and 'prostitute. Expectedly, this leads to dissonance. He hypothesized that some thoughts might be dissonant, in the sense that they made us feel uncomfortable, while other thoughts were more consonant, in the sense that they made us feel good.

Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. These group of people believed that there would be a flood and that a flying saucer would come to their rescue. In this case, people are more likely to buy the car at the higher price than they would have been if the car had first been offered at the higher price.

After conducting a number of experimentsLeon Festinger came up with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Although he knows that it is important to study and to get to his classes on time, he nevertheless realizes that, at least in this case, he neglected his schoolwork in favor of another activity.

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Cognitive Dissonance Theory