To adopt a terminology that Semiotics is more familiar with, the misunderstanding relies on the confusion between the signified and the referent. What remains is the sum of the inconsistencies underlying beneath any a priori way of doing history.
Or the founding texts of psychoanalysis may themselves be treated as literature, and re-read for the light cast by their formal qualities on their theoretical content Freud's texts frequently resemble detective storiesor the archaeological narratives of which he was so fond.
Despite the title, it is not him the subject of the historical narration, at least not in the terms of a psychoanalytical history.
The criticism has been made, however, that in his and his early followers' studies 'what calls for elucidation are not the artistic and literary works themselves, but rather the psychopathology and biography of the artist, writer or fictional characters'.
Intervening to such an extent in his own building, being so self-reflective, showing now naively and then consciously the very terrain of encounter between history and fiction, doing away with the conventional facade of the historian, Freud subtracts himself from conditions necessary to produce the reality effect.
On this line, one of its major achievement has been the capacity to consider time and space in unprecedented ways. This means that the text represses its real or latent content behind obvious manifest content.