Between and several million Chinese entered Malaya especially the west-coast statesSarawak, and British North Borneo to work as labourers, miners, planters, and merchants. The driving force came from the Industrial Revolution in the West which saw the innovation of large scale factory production of manufactured goods made possible by technological advances, accompanied by more efficient communications e.
The promise that more science will lead to more societal benefits may increasingly be at odds with the experience of individuals in such societies who find their lives are changing in ways that they cannot control and in directions they may not desire.
Such conclusions may have driven many to avoid medical services in preference for traditional cures. Since relatively little processing was done on the former prior to export, most of the value-added component in the final product accrued to foreign manufacturers, e.
There were differences over the composition of the federation at that stage, with Tunku keen on a smaller federation involving Sarawak and Brunei as well as the Malayan Federation, while the British government preferred a broader federation involving all the Borneo states, Singapore and the Federation of Malaya.
The resulting disaffection can fuel social backlash that is antagonistic to the further adoption of modern science and technology Hairudin, The cultures are largely in a dynamic flux.