Women industrial workers during industrialization
Women in the early industrial period
Men assumed supervisory roles over women and received higher wages. These were very small wages, even though 10s per day is above the average for a woman at this time. Women during this time also had to be the caretaker of the house, so they might have worked all day and night to keep up their daily routine. This caused many people to migrate from rural areas to urban centers in search of work in the newly established factories and mines. Throughout the s, women were denied the right to vote, but this changed in most industrial societies in the early s, as the governments began to extend rights to women. Her sons would make around 9s per day and she would make around 10s per day. Women's return "home'' during industrialization is ending as women and men set off on another road toward an undetermined goal. Because not all women worked, and because children usually contributed more to the family budget than their mothers, for the average family the wife contributed only around seven percent of total family income. As with the children and men the hours were long and conditions were hard. As a result of the impacts of the Industrial Revolution, women entered the workforce in textile mills and coal mines in large numbers. The scythe required less labor to harvest a given acre, but left more grain on the ground, so as grain prices fell relative to wages, farmers substituted the scythe for the sickle. For example, a common job for women in a coal mine was to haul carts of coal up mine shafts. Alexander Gray, a pump boy aged 10 years old. Although most women worked in textile factories, which were less dangerous than jobs such as coal mining and other new industrial positions, even textile factories were overcrowded and unsafe.
The decay of family-centered agriculture meant the loss of an important source of female employment, particularly for married women, a process that had begun in phase one if not before. If the workers were late or broke rules they could be strapped, Elizabeth stated that she had been severely strapped for being late.
Combined with some redistribution of the female work force, this decline in married women's work and the contingent pattern of a merely temporary work experience represented the most typical aspect of phase two.
Because women's work in the preindustrial world had been home based and largely seasonal, work had not seriously interfered with women's responsibilities in child care and household duties. For single women, phase two meant new opportunities emerging about the turn of the twentieth century, especially in the tertiary or service sector.
This movement for equality in voting rights is often referred to as the suffrage movement and the women who fought for equal voting rights are referred to as suffragettes. Again, the evolution of domestic service in phase two is suggestive of a more general pattern.
What are three negative effects/consequences of the industrial revolution on women?
I have many a time come home, and have thought it a mercy to find nothing has happened to them. This essay will concentrate almost exclusively upon phase one with some analysis of the transition to phase two, but it is important to understand how these two phases contributed to permanent changes in women's working lives. Women's return "home'' during industrialization is ending as women and men set off on another road toward an undetermined goal. Elizabeth Wells, who worked in a Leicester worsted factory, had five children, ages 10, 8, 6, 2, and four months. She describes her experience in the mines by what she had to wear; a belt around her waist and a chain between her legs that hooked up to the carts that carried the coal into the pits. The industrial age led to a rapid increase in birth rates which clearly has an impact upon the physical strength of the mothers. Female Industrial-era workers in the United States often worked in "mill towns" such as Lowell, Massachusetts, where their lives were tightly controlled by the company and they were paid far less than men. Humphries, Jane. Although this lifestyle was very difficult for Mrs. The eldest, a daughter, stayed home to tend the house and care for the infant.
In spite of some historians' assumption that to write about the history of men includes the history of women, women experience historical processes differently. Servants themselves, unwilling to be subject to the capricious demands of employers and to the demeaning requirements of service, sought employment in other sectors, which offered them more freedom.
In phase two, then, married women faced vastly reduced options.
It is clear in retrospect that women's decline in the labor force during industrialization was merely a temporary phase.
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